LAND REVENUE CODE 1888 SECTION 79. Amount of rent payable by tenant. A person placed, as tenant, in possession of land by another, or, in that capacity, holding, taking or retaining possession of land permissively from or by sufferance of another, shall be regarded as holding the same at the rent, or for the services, agreed upon between them; or, in the absence of satisfactory evidence of such agreement of the rent payable or services renderable by the usage of the locality, or, if there be no such agreement or usage, shall be presumed to hold at such rent as, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, shall be just and reasonable. And, where, by reason of the antiquity of a tenancy, no satisfactory evidence of its commencement is forthcoming, and there is not any such evidence of the period of its intended duration, if any, agreed upon between the landlord and tenant, or those under whom they respectively claim title, or any usage of the locality as the duration of such tenancy, it shall, as against the immediate landlord of the tenant, be presumed to be co-extensive with the duration of the tenure of such landlord and of those who derive title under him.

Explanation. In the following cases, such a presumption shall be raised.

(1) where the tenant has been recognised as a permanent tenant by the landlord or by a Court in a suit to which the landlord was a party;

(2) where a tenant holds land in respect of which any alienation has been recognised by the landlord or by a Court in a suit to which the landlord was a party or where the alienation has not been contested by the landlord for twelve years from the date of the service of notice of alienation to the landlord;

(3) where for the better cultivation of the holding the tenant has made permanent improvements thereon to the knowledge of the landlord and has been in undisturbed possession of the holding continuously for twelve years thereafter: provided that the landlord has made no contribution for such improvements nor recovered enhanced rent from the tenant nor given any notice in writing to the tenant that such improvements would not create any new rights;

(4) where, in the absence of a contract regarding the nature and duration of the tenancy, the tenant has established that he has been in continuous possession on payment of fixed rent for a period of twelve And where there is no satisfactory evidence of the capacity in which a person in possession of land in respect of which he renders service or pays rent to the landlord, receives, holds or retains possession of the same, it shall be presumed that he is in possession as tenant. Nothing contained in this section shall affect the right of the landlord (if he have the same either by virtue of agreement, usage or otherwise) to enhance the rent payable, or services renderable, by the tenant, or to evict the tenant for non-payment of the rent or non-rendition of the services, either respectively originally fixed or duly enhanced as aforesaid.

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