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WHAT IS MEANT BY INAMS IN KARNATAKA (EXTRACT FROM MYSORE MUZRAI MANUAL)

WHAT IS MEANT BY INAMS IN KARNATAKA
(EXTRACT FROM MYSORE MUZRAI MANUAL)

A Inam is a grant by Government for the per¬sonal benefit of an individual or individuals or for religious, charitable or other purposes, or for service rendered to the State or to a Village commu¬nity. Lands so granted are held free of assessment, or subject to a Jodi (light assessment) or quit-rent. According to the Land Revenue Code the term "inam" or "alienation of land" means the assignment, in favour of an individual or individuals or of a religious or a charitable institution, wholly or partially, of the right of Government to levy land revenue .


HISTORY OF INAM

The origin of inams dates prior to 1800 and dates from antiquity. Under the orders of Dewan Purnaiya, a survey "Akshaya Paimayish", as it was then termed, the survey having been instituted in the Hindu year "Akshaya" was made of all inam lands. This survey was nei¬ther accurate nor perfect; still the results were of some use for purposes of inam settlement. Further, it was not a survey in terms of "acres and guntas" as of now, but of "Bijavari". Purnaiya's inam accounts were prepared "Isamwar" and "Talukwar", but not for the village, and they constitute the "original Jari Inamti accounts", or a record of valid grant, confirmed by due authority. Purnaiya is said to have restored the inams which had been resumed by Mohammedan. Rulers, not on the original terms, but with the imposition of a substantial "Jodi". He also granted fresh inams, without exceeding the total old recorded value of the inams. During his settlement, Purnaiya also dealt with excesses discovered in all personal inams over and above three Kanthirai Pagodas in value. The up-shot of his settlement appears, roughly, to have been the confirmation of inams of the value of about eight lakhs of rupees, with a Jodi however, of about three lakhs.

In earlier days the assessment was being levied both in kind and cash, on the principle that the ruling power was entitled to a certain proportion of the produce of every acre of land belonging to the State.

A number of inams were also created during the period 1811 to 1831 during the reign Maharaja Krishnaraja Wodeyar III, and large alienations were made, in addition to which a good many villages were granted on Kayamgutta or permanent tenure. Lands, with a rough assessment valuation of 3 ½ lakhs of rupees, were thus granted as inams, the jodi imposed thereon being only about half a lakh.



The grants made by the British Commission since 1831, which may be called the third epoch in inam history, were few, and were for special purposes, such as, the maintenance of topes, tanks and avenue trees, and the upkeep Chattrams. The Jodi imposed was also substantial.


In 1841, certain inams unsupported by documentary evidence, but recognised in practice, were newly registered by the Revenue Authorities in accounts, called "Chor", "Swalpa", "Chora Manya". These accounts were later on accepted by the Inam Department. In 1847 however, during the preparation of the "Aval Number" accounts, some unauthorizedly enjoyed inams were resumed.

INAM COMMISSION FOR INVESTIGATION AND SETTLE¬MENT OF INAMS.

The question of an inam settlement of Mysore was mooted in 1863; but the Inam Commission was not organised until 1864. This Commission was composed of an Inam Commissioner, a Special Assistant, and three Assistants all of whom were invested with judicial powers which were however withdrawn, when the department was reorganised in 1872.


INAM SETTLEMENT RULES.

With the approval of the Govern­ment of India, a set of Rules were issued in 1868, for the guidance of the Inam Commission, in the investigation and settlement of inams. These rules are based on the theory of the reversionary right of Government and the governing principle adopted to test the validity of inams was that only such of them were to be confirmed, as satisfied either of the following two condi­tions.

(i)     The competence of the grantor irrespective of the duration of the inam, whether 50 or less than 50 years old.

(ii)     The duration of the inam for 50 years or more irrespective of the competence of the grantor.

CLASSIFICATION OF INAMS.

The following are the various classes of inams

I. Personal inams. (a) Inams held for personal benefit. (b) Bramhadaya inams, including Agrahar inams.
II.     Religious (Devadaya) and charitable (Dharmadaya) inams.
III.     Kodagi inams.
IV.     Service inams. (a) Miscellaneous service inams such as Deshpande, Desh-mukhi, Deshkulkarni, etc. (b) Inams to Artisans and others for services rendered to the village community. (c) Village service inams.
V.     Miscellaneous Inams.

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